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Table 3 Risk of bias assessments from individual trials extracted from published Cochrane reviews

From: Nudge strategies to improve healthcare providers’ implementation of evidence-based guidelines, policies and practices: a systematic review of trials included within Cochrane systematic reviews

Author name, year, study design, country Random sequence generation Allocation concealment Protection against contamination Baseline outcomes similar Baseline characteristics similar Blinding of outcome assessment Incomplete outcome data Selective reporting Other bias
Baer 2016, cluster RCT, USA Low risk Unclear risk Low risk Not assessed Not assessed High risk High risk High risk Unclear risk
Barnett 1983, RCT, USA Unclear risk Unclear risk High risk Unclear risk Low risk Unclear risk Low risk Unclear risk Unclear risk
Burack 1996, RCT, USA Unclear risk Unclear risk High risk Unclear risk Low risk Low risk Low risk Unclear risk Unclear risk
Chambers 1989, RCT, USA Low risk Unclear risk High risk Low risk Low risk Unclear risk Unclear risk Unclear risk Unclear risk
Chambers 1991, cluster RCT, USA Low risk Unclear risk Low risk Unclear risk Unclear risk Unclear risk Low risk Unclear risk Unclear risk
Cranney 2008, cluster RCT, Canada Low risk Low risk Unclear risk Low risk Low risk Unclear risk Low risk Unclear risk Low risk
Daucourt 2003, cluster RCT, France Low risk Low risk Not assessed Unclear risk Unclear risk Unclear risk Low risk Low risk Low risk
Dey, 2004, cluster RCT, England Low risk Low risk Unclear risk Unclear risk Low risk High risk Low risk Unclear risk Low risk
Eccles, 2001, RCT, England Low risk Low risk Low risk High risk Unclear risk Low risk Low risk Unclear risk Unclear risk
Engers, 2005, cluster RCT, Denmark Low risk High risk Unclear risk Unclear risk Unclear risk High risk Low risk Unclear risk High risk
Feldstein 2006, RCT, USA Low risk Low risk Unclear risk Unclear risk Low risk Low risk Low risk Unclear risk Unclear risk
Fisher 2013, RCT, Singapore Low risk Low risk Unclear risk Low risk High risk High risk Low risk Low risk Low risk
Goodfellow 2016, cluster RCT, England Low risk Low risk Low risk Low risk Unclear risk Low risk Unclear risk Low risk Not assessed
Grant 2011, RCT, USA Unclear risk Low risk Low risk Low risk High risk Low risk Low risk Low risk Low risk
Ince 2015, RCT, England Low risk Low risk Not assessed Not assessed Not assessed Low risk Unclear risk Low risk Low risk
King 2016, RCT, USA Low risk Low risk Unclear risk Low risk Low risk High risk Low risk Low risk Unclear risk
Lafata 2007, cluster RCT, USA High risk Unclear risk Unclear risk Low risk Unclear risk High risk High risk Unclear risk Low risk
Le Breton, 2016, cluster RCT, France Low risk Low risk Low risk Low risk High risk Low risk Low risk Low risk Unclear risk
Leslie 2012; RCT; Canada Low risk Low risk Unclear risk Low risk Low risk Low risk Low risk Low risk Low risk
Lobach, 1997, RCT, USA Low risk Low risk Low risk Low risk Low risk Low risk Low risk Unclear risk Unclear risk
Majumdar 2007, RCT, Canada Low risk Low risk High risk Unclear risk Unclear risk Low risk Low risk Unclear risk Low risk
Majumdar 2008, RCT, Canada Low risk Low risk High risk Unclear risk Unclear risk Low risk Low risk Unclear risk Low risk
Martin Madrazo 2012, cluster RCT, Spain Low risk Low risk Low risk Low risk High risk Low risk Low risk Low risk High risk
McAlister, 2006, RCT, Canada Low risk Low risk Low risk Low risk Low risk Low risk Low risk Low risk Low risk
Mertz 2010, cluster RCT, Canada Low risk Low risk High risk Low risk High risk Unclear risk Low risk Low risk High risk
Munoz-Price 2014, cross-over RCT, USA Low risk Low risk High risk Unclear risk Low risk High risk Low risk Low risk Low risk
Rahme 2005, cluster RCT, Canada Unclear risk Unclear risk Low risk Unclear risk Low risk Low risk Low risk Unclear risk Unclear risk
Robling 2002, cluster RCT, England High risk Unclear risk Unclear risk Unclear risk Unclear risk Low risk Unclear risk Unclear risk Unclear risk
Rodriguez 2015, cluster RCT, Argentina Low risk Unclear risk Unclear risk Low risk Unclear risk Unclear risk Low risk Low risk Low risk
Rogers 1982, RCT, USA Unclear risk Unclear risk Unclear risk Unclear risk Unclear risk Low risk High risk High risk Not assessed
Rossi 1997, cluster RCT, USA Low risk Low risk Low risk Unclear risk High risk Low risk Unclear risk Unclear risk Unclear risk
Roux, 2013, RCT, Canada Low risk Low risk Unclear risk Low risk High risk High risk Low risk Unclear risk Unclear risk
Schnoor 2010, RCT, Germany Low risk Low risk Low risk High risk High risk Unclear risk Unclear risk Unclear risk High risk
Schouten 2007, cluster RCT, Netherlands Low risk Low risk Low risk Low risk Low risk Unclear risk Low risk Unclear risk Low risk
Shah 2014, cluster RCT, Canada Low risk Low risk Not assessed Low risk High risk Low risk Low risk Unclear risk Unclear risk
Shojania 1998, RCT, USA Unclear risk High risk High risk Unclear risk Low risk High risk Unclear risk Low risk Low risk
Solomon 2007, cluster RCT, USA Low risk Unclear risk Low risk Unclear risk Low risk Low risk Low risk Low risk Unclear risk
Solomon 2001, RCT, USA Low risk Unclear risk Low risk Unclear risk Low risk Low risk Low risk Low risk Unclear risk
Stewardson 2016, cluster RCT, Switzerland Low risk Low risk Unclear risk Low risk Unclear risk High risk Low risk Low risk Low risk
Taveras 2015, cluster RCT, USA Low risk Low risk Low risk Low risk Unclear risk Low risk Low risk High risk Not assessed
Thompson 2008, cluster RCT, England Low risk Low risk Not assessed Not assessed Not assessed Unclear risk Low risk Low risk Unclear risk
Yeung 2011, cluster RCT, Hong Kong Unclear risk Low risk Unclear risk Low risk High risk High risk Low risk Low risk High risk
  1. Risk of bias was assessed for the primary implementation outcome where specified
  2. Note: Not assessed refers to where the risk of bias criteria were not assessed in the Cochrane review in which they were identified