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Table 5 A summary of the number and percentage of outcomes reporting an estimated effect in support of the intervention by number of nudge strategies and intervention type

From: Nudge strategies to improve healthcare providers’ implementation of evidence-based guidelines, policies and practices: a systematic review of trials included within Cochrane systematic reviews

Strategy Number of studies Number of outcomes Number (%) of estimated effects in direction of hypothesised effecta Number (%) estimated effects in direction of hypothesised effect and significanta
All studies 42 57 49 (86) 30 (53)
Nudge as part of multicomponent intervention 22 30 24 (80) 15 (50)
Nudge only intervention 20 27 25 (93) 15 (56)
One nudge strategy included 29 42 36 (86) 23 (55)
More than one nudge strategy included 13 15 13 (87) 7 (47)
Type of nudge strategies:     
 Priming 29 41 37 (90) 24 (59)
 Norms and messenger 17 19 16 (84) 9 (47)
 Salience/ affect/affect 8 11 8 (73) 3 (27)
 Incentive 3 3 1 (33) 0 (0)
 Default 1 1 1 (100) 1 (100)
 Commitment/ego 1 1 1 (100) 0 (0)
  1. Note: aThere are several studies that report on more than one outcome and thus are represented more than once in this result