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Table 1 Outcome measures

From: IMPLEmenting a clinical practice guideline for acute low back pain evidence-based manageMENT in general practice (IMPLEMENT): Cluster randomised controlled trial study protocol

Outcome Data collection method Follow-up schedule Source Level at which data are collected
GP level     
X-ray referral (process)1,2 Data abstraction 3 months Patient medical record Patient
Advice to stay active (process) Telephone interview 7 days after consultation Patient Patient
Advised bed rest (process) Telephone interview 7 days after consultation Patient Patient
Any imaging referral (process)3 Data abstraction 3 months Patient medical record Patient
FAB-Q4 Questionnaire Baseline, 12 months GP GP
Measurement of behavioural constructs5 Questionnaire Baseline, 12 months GP GP
Patient level     
Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RDQ)1,6 Telephone interview 7 days and 3 months after consultation Patient Patient
Usual pain7 Telephone interview 7 days and 3 months after consultation Patient Patient
X-ray occurred Telephone interview 3 months Patient Patient
FAB-Q4 Telephone interview 3 months Patient Patient
Assessment of Quality of Life (AQoL) Telephone interview 7 days and 3 months after consultation Patient Patient
Health Service Utilisation Items Telephone interview 7 days and 3 months after consultation Patient Patient
  1. 1 Primary outcome.
  2. 2 Includes either evidence of referral for x-ray or evidence that an x-ray has been taken (e.g., copy of x-ray film with GP name).
  3. 3 Includes either evidence of referral for any imaging or evidence that imaging has occurred.
  4. 4 FAB-Q physical activity subscale [61]. The original scale will be used in patient participants. A modified version will be used for GP participants with details of the modifications available in the full protocol. Details of the reliability, validity and responsiveness are available in Waddell et al. [61] and George et al. [62].
  5. 5 Table 2 provides details on the behavioural constructs.
  6. 6 The RDQ measures 24 activity limitations due to back pain. Reliability and validity for use over the phone reported in Roland et al. [63].
  7. 7 Measured using an eleven point numerical rating scale (0 – 10) with the question "On a scale of zero to 10, zero being no pain and 10 being pain as bad as it can be, where would you rate your usual pain today?". Reliability and validity for its use over the phone is reported in Von Korff et al. [64].